The last seven Mayors of Newark — going back more than seventy years — were defeated in their bids for re-election. The incumbent, Sharpe James, ousted four-term incumbent Kenneth Gibson in 1986. Gibson had unseated Mayor Hugh Addonizio in 1970. Addonizio defeated Mayor Leo Carlin 1958; Carlin won in 1953 over Mayor Ralph Villani, who had won office four years earlier after upsetting Mayor Vincent Murphy. In 1941, Murphy was elected Mayor in a close race with incumbent Meyer Ellenstein, who had defeated Mayor Jerome Congleton eight years before. Congleton had become Mayor in 1928 when the incumbent, Thomas Raymond, passed away.